Confocal 3-D Microscopy
A selection of historical results from the work that led to my dissertation.
Reference for comparison of confocal white light microscopy with tactile sensors
A letter from Dr. Hillmann, Head of the Laboratory for Surfaces of the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt PTB (1995), concerning the results within the scope of my dissertation.
Fig. 1: Comparison on a PTB roughness standard 4058/01 Level 3 (Ra = 1.45 µm). The lower blue profile shows the microscopic measurement, the upper red profile the tactile reference measurement.
Fig. 2-4: Comparison on a PTB roughness standard. 4058/01 level 1 (Ra = 0.20 µm). The red profiles in Fig. 2 show the tactile reference measurement, above as the overall profile, below as a section.
Fig. 3: shows the equivalent microscopic measurement. Fig. 4 shows the profile comparison between tactile and microscopic measurement.
Fig. 1: shows the measurement at the deepest groove (9 µm) of the PTB depth setting standard.
Fig. 2: shows the measurement on a shallow groove (0.6 µm) of the PTB depth setting standard. The grooves of the PTB depth setting standard are lapped into a polished glass block. Lapping grooves of a few 10 nm depth are clearly visible in the shallow groove.
Confocal 3D microscopic measurements on four differently textured sheets.
Confocal 3D microscopic measurements on a steel pin (left image) and a Vickers hardness indentation (right image).
Confocal 3D microscopic measurements on different textured glass surfaces.
Confocal 3D microscopic measurements on various microstructures.
Confocal 3D microscopic measurements on different papers.
Fig. 1: Long-fiber white paper
Fig. 2: Recycled paper
Fig. 3: Transparent drawing paper
Fig. 4: Banknote paper